La INVENCIÓN del pueblo judio – Estudios genéticos

La reciente decisión de Trump de trasladar la embajada de Estados Unidos desde Tel Aviv a Jerusalén vuelve a poner en primer plano la discusión sobre la legitimidad de la ocupación de Palestina por un presunto pueblo judio exiliado que recuperaría tras casi dos milenios su Tierra Prometida.

El problema no es sólo teórico, la creación del Estado de Israel es todavía uno de los mayores focos del conflicto interminable entre musulmanes y occidentales. Históricamente, sin el Holocausto ordenado por Hitler para eliminar a lo que pensaba ser raza judía, ni siquiera la ONU habría apoyado la fundación de dicho estado.

Aquí dejaremos de lado la problemática del mismo origen del Pueblo Judío a que se refiere la Biblia, los estudios de Assmann, sobre todo en Exodus ponen de manifiesto que la misma identidad de la nación judía fue apoyada desde sus comienzos, al regreso del exilio babilónico con argumentos de tipo mito-religioso, en una forma similar a la fundamentación de Roma en la Eneida. El libro del catedrático israeli Sand ha reunido los argumentos históricos sobre la creación, en el movimiento sionista decimonónico, de la idea de un Pueblo, Volk, concebido a imagen y semejanza del Volk alemán. Las paradojas abundan en la forma de concebir toda esta cuestión. La idea de nación-pueblo surge gracias a la forma de observar los hechos propia del Romanticismo alemán cuando Herder se inspira en la idea bíblica del Pueblo de Israel al que Jahvé asigna un suelo, Boden, en Palestina. Y precisamente el Sionismo al que vio como su enemigo el nacionalismo alemán, surgido de esa idea de Herder,  es la primera víctima al enaltecer su peculiaridad como Volk. Hitler y sus seguidores no habrían podido justificar su ataque a las comunidades religioso-culturales judías sin la autodefinición sionista de los judíos como Pueblo.

La obra de Sand sobre la invención del pueblo de Israel ha sido atacada por algunos que aducen que hay rasgos genéticos comunes. Es la idea habitual todavía en la mayoría. Pero esos rasgos podrían muy bien deberse a cierta endogamia en las comunidades judías y no tener nada que ver con una presunta descendencia de los antiguos judios a los que derrotó Roma. Los romanos no deportaron al pueblo que ocupaba Palestina, sólo se llevaron a sus acostumbradas marchas triunfales a unos cientos de judíos. Y la otra , mucho mas triste, paradoja es que la evidencia histórica y genética muestra que los ocupantes israelíes de Palestina están robando su suelo, su Boden, precisamente a los descendientes del antiguo pueblo judío.

Aquí comparto el resumen histórico sobre la dimensión genética del problema Israelí-palestino

Genetic evidence
Further information: Genetic studies of Jewish origins and Khazar theory of Ashkenazi ancestry

Sand’s book has occasionally been mentioned in the press in the context of studies in Jewish population genetics. This has been the case in June 2010, as the popular press reported on two studies in this field, (Atzmon et al., American Journal of Human Genetics and Beha et al., Nature).

Thus, Newsweek mentions Sand’s book as having “revived” debate on the Khazar hypothesis.[5] and the New York Times said the studies “refute the suggestion made last year by the historian Shlomo Sand in his book The Invention of the Jewish People that Jews have no common origin but are a miscellany of people in Europe and Central Asia who converted to Judaism at various times.”[6] Michael Balter, reviewing the study in the journal Science, says the following:

… Shlomo Sand of Tel Aviv University in Israel argues in his book The Invention of the Jewish People, translated into English last year, that most modern Jews do not descend from the ancient Land of Israel but from groups that took on Jewish identities long afterward.

Nevertheless, the study by Ostrer’s group concluded that all three Jewish groups—Middle Eastern, Sephardic, and Ashkenazi—share genomewide genetic markers that distinguish them from other worldwide populations.[4]

Geneticist Harry Ostrer presented findings that were generally viewed as disproving Sand’s notion that the Jewish people is an ex-post invention.[38][39] Ostrer said, “I would hope that these observations would put the idea that Jewishness is just a cultural construct to rest.” Balter’s article further cites Noah Rosenberg of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, as saying that although the study “does not appear to support” the Khazar hypothesis, it “doesn’t entirely eliminate it either.”[4]

Shlomo Sand has contested the claim that his book has been contradicted by recent genetic research published in Nature journal and the American Journal of Human Genetics. In a new afterword for the paperback edition of The Invention of the Jewish People, Sand writes:

This attempt to justify Zionism through genetics is reminiscent of the procedures of late nineteenth-century anthropologists who very scientifically set out to discover the specific characteristics of Europeans. As of today, no study based on anonymous DNA samples has succeeded in identifying a genetic marker specific to Jews, and it is not likely that any study ever will. It is a bitter irony to see the descendants of Holocaust survivors set out to find a biological Jewish identity: Hitler would certainly have been very pleased! And it is all the more repulsive that this kind of research should be conducted in a state that has waged for years a declared policy of “Judaization of the country” in which even today a Jew is not allowed to marry a non-Jew.[40]

Another study on European Jewish population genetics was published in 2012 (Elhaik et al.). According to his study’s conclusions, European Jews derive from Caucasus and Mesopotamian populations.[8][41][42]

On the publication of Elhaik’s study, Haaretz reported comments by Sand, who took Elhaik’s paper as a vindication of his ideas and seized the opportunity to criticize again “geneticists looking for Jewish genes”, expressing the suspicion that the findings of prior geneticists may have been “adapted” for political reasons.[43] As in historical research so in genetics, he argues: “It is very easy to showcase certain findings while marginalizing others and to present your study as scholarly research.”[44] Some geneticists conducting studies in Jewish genetics have challenged Elhaik’s methods. Michael Hammer, a geneticist at the University of Arizona, called one of Elhaik’s underlying assumptions “unrealistic” and described Elhaik and other proponents of the Khazarian hypothesis as “outlier folks … who have a minority view that’s not supported scientifically.”[45] Marcus Feldman, a geneticist at Stanford University and director of its Morrison Institute for Population and Resource Studies, agrees: “If you take all of the careful genetic population analysis that has been done over the last 15 years, … there’s no doubt about the common Middle Eastern origin” of the Jewish people.[45] Dan Graur, professor of molecular evolution at the University of Houston and Elihak’s doctoral supervisor, called Elhaik’s conclusion that Ashkenazi Jews originated in the Caucasus region and not the Middle East “a very honest estimate” and said Elhaik “writes more provocatively than may be needed, but it’s his style.”[45]

5 Begley, Sharon (June 3, 2010). “The DNA Of Abraham’s Children”. Newsweek. Retrieved June 10, 2010.
6 Wade, Nicholas (June 9, 2010). “Studies Show Jews’ Genetic Similarity”. New York Times. Retrieved June 10, 2010.
7 Aderet, Ofer. “The Jewish people’s ultimate treasure hunt”. Haaretz. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
8 http://gbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/5/1/75.full
9 “Gene study settles debate over origin of European Jews”. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
10 “A substantial prehistoric European ancestry amongst Ashkenazi maternal lineages”. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
11 Tia Ghose. “Surprise: Ashkenazi Jews Are Genetically European”. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
12 Carlo Strenge. “Shlomo Sand’s ‘The Invention of the Jewish People’ is a success for Israel”. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
13 ^ The Invention of the Jewish People, English Edition (Verso Books, 2009)
14 Die Erfindung des jüdischen Volkes: Israels Gründungsmythos auf dem Prüfstand. Propyläen. 2010. ISBN 978-3549073766.
15 L’invenzione del popolo ebraico. Rizzoli. 2010. ISBN 978-8817044516.
16 “Livraria da Folha – Catálogo – A Invenção do Povo Judeu”. Livraria.folha.com.br. Retrieved 2013-05-15.
17 Sarah (2009-11-11). “BBC says Shlomo Sand’s The Invention of the Jewish People is “an international news story””. Inventionofthejewishpeople.com. Retrieved 2013-05-15.
18 Ilani, Ofri (March 21, 2008). “Shattering a ‘national mythology'”. Haaretz. Retrieved November 18, 2009.
19 Cook, Jonathan (October 6, 2008). “Book refuting Jewish taboo on Israel’s bestseller list”. The National (Abu Dhabi). Retrieved November 18, 2009.
20 Segev, Tom (February 29, 2008). “An invention called ‘the Jewish people'”. Haaretz. Retrieved November 18, 2009.
21 Goldstein, Evan R. (October 29, 2009). “Where Do Jews Come From?”. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 17, 2009.
22c Shlomo Sand: an enemy of the Jewish people? [1]” Retrieved 2011-01-18.
23 Israel must unpick its ethnic myth Tony Judt, The Financial Times, December 7, 2009
24 Hobsbawm, Eric (2009-11-22). “Books of the Year, 2009”. The Observer. Retrieved 2010-03-07.
25 Bartal, Israel (July 6, 2008). “Inventing an invention”. Haaretz. Retrieved October 22, 2009.
26 Kulik, Alexander (2010). History of the Jews in Russia: vol. 1, From Ancient Times to the early Modern Ages. Jerusalem: Zalman Shazar Center for Jewish History. ISBN 978-965-227-276-8.
27 Myths of the Exile and Return: The History of History, David Finkel, May–June 2010. [2]
28 Shapira, Anita (March 2009). “The Jewish-people deniers” (PDF). The Journal of Israeli History. 28 (1): 63–72. doi:10.1080/13531040902752531. ISSN 1353-1042. Retrieved November 18, 2009.
29 Aderet, Ofer (26 June 2014). “Jews are not descended from Khazars, Hebrew University historian says”. haaretz.com. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
30 http://www.lrb.co.uk/v35/n12/daniel-lazare/a-diverse-collection-of-peoples
31 Berkowitz, Michael (October 2010). “The Invention of the Jewish People book review”. Revies in History. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
32 Indecent Proposal, Hillel Halkin, Jan. 9, 2010, The New Republic, [The Invention of the Jewish People. [3]
33 Schama, Simon (November 13, 2009). “The Invention of the Jewish People”. Financial Times. Retrieved November 17, 2009.
34 Sand, Shlomo (November 21, 2009). “Shlomo Sand responds to Simon Schama’s review in the Financial Times”. Retrieved November 29, 2009.
35 Steven Weitzman The Origin of the Jews: The Quest for Roots in a Rootless Age., Princeton University Press, 2017 pp.206-207,320
36 ‘Un livre vide sur “l’histoire du peuple palestinien”, meilleure vente sur Amazon,’ i24news 24 June 2017
37 Shmuel Roser, Steven Weitzman, ‘The Origins of the Jews exchange, part 2: On the gaps between the Jewish public and the scholars,’, The Jewish Journal of Greater Los Angeles, 5 July 2017
38 Ostrer, Harry (2012). Legacy: A Genetic History of the Jewish People. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 210, 220. ISBN 9780195379617.
39 Oransky, Oransky (2012-05-15). “Review: Geneticist Harry Ostrer’s ‘Legacy’ Finds a Biological Basis for Jewishness”. Tablet Magazine. Retrieved 2016-04-21.
40 Sand, Shlomo (2010-06-10). “New York Times on Sand and Jewish Origins”. inventionofthejewishpeople.com. Retrieved 2010-07-05.
41 Aderet, Ofer (2012-12-28). “The Jewish people’s ultimate treasure hunt – Israel News | Haaretz Daily Newspaper”. Haaretz.com. Retrieved 2013-05-15.
42 Eran Elhaik1,2. “The Missing Link of Jewish European Ancestry: Contrasting the Rhineland and the Khazarian Hypotheses”. Gbe.oxfordjournals.org. Retrieved 2013-05-15.
43 “Some people, historians and even scientists, turn a blind eye to the truth. Once to say Jews were a race was anti-Semitic, now to say they’re not a race is anti-Semitic. It’s crazy how history plays with us.” Shlomo Sand cited Danielle Venton, ‘Highlight: Out of Khazaria— Evidence for “Jewish Genome” Lacking,’ in Genome Biology and Evolution, Vol.5, Issue 1, 2013 pp.75-6.
44 Ofer Aderet, ‘The Jewish people’s ultimate treasure hunt,’ at Haaretz, 28 December 2012.
45 Rita Rubin, ‘Jews a Race’ Genetic Theory Comes Under Fierce Attack by DNA Expert,’. The Forward, 7 May 2013.

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